Analysis of the best way of straw comprehensive utilization
With the improvement of agricultural productivity and the degree of mechanization gradually increased, wheat, rice, corn, rapeseed, Artemisia straw resource utilization has experienced multiple turning process - incineration - - resource utilization jinshao. Early farmers harvest crops, often the straw collection, storage, as cooking energy, compost or papermaking, feed cattle.
Later, the level of agricultural mechanization increased gradually, and liquefied petroleum gas became more and more popular in rural areas. Straw became the waste that no one cherished, so farmers often chose to burn it. From the historical stage, incineration has many advantages: convenient operation and returning to the field; the inorganic substance after burning straw can increase soil fertility and not pollute the water source and soil.
But the tradition of forced atmospheric pressure must change. Experts said that the burning of straw smoke release contains a large number of PM2.5, PM10, sulfur dioxide and other pollutants. When the concentration of smoke caused by the burning of straw to a certain extent, the human eye, nose and throat mucosa stimulation is larger, it may cause coughing, chest tightness, tears, serious when still can cause diseases such as bronchitis.
If the collection cost is too high, and the added value of processed products is low, then where is the best way to get rid of straw?
In this regard, Nanjing Agricultural University professor Ding Weimin said that in recent years, Nanjing straw integrated use of sparse combination of sparse, based on the prohibition of promoting the use of the policy must adhere to. To improve the comprehensive utilization ratio, suggested that the government departments to give special subsidies to encourage the development of enterprises and universities, research institutes, cooperation, straw utilization technology upgrading, improve the added value of straw products.
Secondly, we should give full play to the advantages of the existing high-tech enterprises. Calculations show that the annual treatment of straw to 80 thousand - 100 thousand tons of enterprises, and straw transportation distance control in 30 - 50 km, should be able to achieve economies of scale. During the interview, the head of Nanjing Qinfeng revealed that they will join a listed company, in the country to copy more straw use projects.
Third, the "returning to the field" technology in straw utilization "1+5" mode must be improved. Reporters learned that the city's wheat, rice straw comprehensive proportion of about 54%, is still the bulk of straw comprehensive utilization, the local mechanization of returning to the field is still the mainstream model should be adhered to.
In the "1+5" utilization, "1" is the big straw, but also the most important. City Commission deputy inspector Yang Wuyi said, from the current situation, because of the high cost of straw collection is difficult to solve, in returning is the most economical, convenient and feasible way to solve.
However, the technical content of returning farmland should be further improved. Returning the 4 modes, the whole city, water hydroponic returning is the main push technology, in the field after the wheat harvest, the local cutting straw into segments, stubble control at 5 cm high. The water inside the field overflowed the straw and soaked for a period of time. The driver operated a special straw returning machine, deep turning the land and turning the straw into the ground. "As the need for two times, so that the straw is no longer a group, three or four days after planting the fields can." Field technical staff said.
Professor Qu Yinggang believes that, in addition to improving the returning technology and upgrading straw processing technology, the straw comprehensive utilization needs more creativity. In foreign countries, many farms will collect straw briquetting, a huge cylindrical shape as landscape, attract many tourists to visit; and the enterprise will produce straw briquetting home accessories and building materials, also received good economic benefits. "We need to explore the" returning to the main "1+N straw use, in situ and near the straw to waste into treasure, when the straw will really become farmers do not want to burn, enterprises to grab the baby."